User's guide chapter 2 section 1 & 2



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Chapter 2 – Basic Functions

2.1 – Setting Up ProcessModel

2.1.1 – Opening ProcessModel

How To – Open ProcessModel

1. Click Start on the Windows taskbar.

2. Scroll to the ProcessModel folder and click on ProcessModel 5.

3. After starting ProcessModel, a demo model will open based on your chosen default industry. You can change both your default industry, and whether the demo model opens by clicking Tools / Preferences.

2.1.2 – Live Process Mapper

Live Process Mapper (LPM) is the “little sister” of ProcessModel. It was designed to capture and animate the flow of a system without the details of a full simulated model. It can be used by people with less training to capture a process for a Certified Process Improvement Specialist (or other trained individual) to complete a simulation.

More Information

LPM has only the features that are necessary to create an animation of the process. The purpose is to capture and animate the flow so that process expert can verify that the relevant elements of the flow have been communicated to the interviewer. The animation is unparalleled in uncovering nuances of the process.

A Live Process Map is a flow diagram with associated operational information for animating a process.

Flowcharts are excellent for processes that are simple to moderate in complexity. Once a flowchart becomes complex, understanding the real flow of individual items becomes difficult (sometimes impossible). The behavior of individual transactions is seldom understood. The same diagram is often interpreted different by different people.

On the other hand, simulation can represent very complex processes with detailed interrelationships. The model is dynamic so that you can observe and absorb the function of the process. With simulation the most complex processes can be modeled and understood…if you have the data to create the model. Because of the requirement of needing detail data and development of flow logic simulation models take longer to create than flowcharts.

Live Process Mapping addresses the middle ground. LPM is a totally new way of looking at complex processes. With LPM you can quickly define the flow and basic characteristics of the most complex process. LPM creates a dynamic picture to gain consensus among team members. You can actually watch individual items flow through the process steps with animation. The animation is interesting, creating a conduit for communication of complex ideas to others.

Also see; Missing Arrival TypesResource Shows Properties Dialog for Activities and Missing Fields & Output Report Options.

Switch on Live Process Mapper

1. Click Tools \ Switch to Live Process Mapping.

2. Close ProcessModel and start it again.

Switch off Live Process Mapper

1. Click Tools \ Switch to ProcessModel.

2. Close ProcessModel and start it again.

Features:

* Entities

* Arrivals

* Periodic

* Activities

* General

* Action Logic

* Submodels

* Routings

* Attach

* Conditional

* Create

* Detach

* Else

* Percentage

* Attributes

* Variables

* All Documentation/Drawing Features

Features not available In LPM

* Resources

* Costing

* Scenarios

* SimRunner

* Stat::Fit

* Most Arrivals

* Some Routings

* Run Length

* Replications

LPM can be used to run models created in ProcessModel.

LPM cost much less so it can be used by a broad range of people to quickly provide the pre-work for detailed modelers.

Below is a comprehensive list of features found in ProcessModel and LPM for comparison.

Category LPM ProcessModel
Arrivals X X
Continuous X
Periodic X X
Scheduled X
Ordered X
Daily Pattern X
Entities X X
Cost X
Activities X X
Batching
Action X X
Cost X
Shift X
SubModel X X
Resources X
Availability X
Cost X
Shift X
Storages X
Attributes X X
Variables X X
Submodels X X
Optimization X
Stat::Fit X
Replications X
Run Length X
Import Data X
Export Data X X
Export to Office Products X X
Import Custom Graphics for Animation  X X
Output Analysis X
Detailed Output X
Summary Report X
Model Protection  X X
X
Runtime Capability  X X
Swimlane Charts X X
SPC Charts X X
Bock Diagrams X X
Org Charts X X
Cascade Diagrams X X
Fishbone Diagrams X X
Pyramid Diagram X X
Spoke Chart X X

2.1.3 – Setting Up the Page

How To – Set up the Page

1. Click the File menu, and select New Process.

2. On the File menu, click Page Setup.page header options in processmodel

3. Under Orientation, select Landscape to change the page orientation.

4. Click the Margins tab.

5. Type .50 or your preferred setting in each of the four margin boxes. Notice the preview shows how the page will look with the selected margin settings.

6. Click the Header and Footer tab.

7. Click the Custom Header button. You can add items to appear at the top of all pages in any of three positions (Left, Center, or Right Section).

8. Select the items you want to appear on the page. The chart name or any text of your choosing, page number, page number of the page total, date, or time can appear on the chart.

9. Click the Custom Footer button. Set the footer by following the same steps you used to set the header.

10. Click OK to return to Page Setup.

11. Click OK to return to Document.

2.1.4 – Adding Layers

See Using Layers video tutorial.

Layers let you organize objects by letting you separate related objects from other objects. A common use of layers is with background and foreground objects and adding comments. You can place background objects on one layer, and then you can place foreground objects on a different layer, and manipulate them without disturbing the background. This also allows you to add comments on different layers for help with an audit.

Another use of layers is to organize model notes on layers that can help you during model development, but be made invisible during presentation.

The Layer Manager lets you add, delete, and set layer options.

Layers are important for 4 main reasons.

  1. Organize graphic elements to emphasize the most important things, yet not interfere with model access. This is different than ordering things on the same layer which will cause difficulty in selecting the desired element.
  2. Save time and effort by documenting during the build process. You can keep track of important project information such as notes, questions, assumptions, timings or anything else, yet keep you model clean and ready for presentation.
  3. Improve your presentation by revealing information as it is needed, rather than dumping information the audience. This gives you control over how much and when to release information.
  4. Take the headache out of tracking of all your project data. All of your information — notes, assumptions, word documents, data sets, power point presentations, etc., can be attached to the model. When you create a model package , all the files attached are also included.

How To – Add layers

1. To access the Layer Manager, go to the Arrange menu and click on Layers. Then select Layer Manager.

2. To change the layer name, click Rename, type Notes, and then click OK. Notice that the layer name changes in the list.

3. To add a layer called Chart, click Add, type Chart, and then click OK. Notice that the Chart layer now appears in the list.

Important information to be aware of The layers appear in the list in the same order in which you added them to the model. Layers at the top of your list appear behind items at the bottom of your list.

4. On the Layer Manager screen, review the options (Visible, Printable, or Locked) for each layer.

Important information to be aware of You can set the visible, printable, and locked layer options by selecting the appropriate box for each layer. Visible and Printable let you see and print a layer, respectively. When a layer is locked, you cannot access it without unlocking it.

Important information to be aware of You must select the Visible option for a particular layer on the Layer Manager before you can access that layer to make additions or changes.

5. Click OK. Notice the tabs at the bottom left of the chart area adding-layers. These are the layer tabs. The tab contains the name of the layer. To activate the layer, click the tab. The active tab becomes highlighted.

Important information to be aware of When you have more than two layers, the arrow buttons to the left of the tabs let you scroll through the layer tabs.

Important information to be aware of You can also access the options for a particular layer by clicking the right mouse button on that layer tab and selecting from the menu. This menu also allows you to access the full Layer Manager menu.

How To – Move Layers Forward or Back

To bring a layer to the foreground or move it to the background:

  1. Select the layer to move.
  2. Click the Arrange menu.
  3. Click Layers and select the desired Move option.

2.1.5 – Add Comments

User comments can be added to a layer or multiple layers can be created with user names for an audit trail. The comments layer or the user name layer can be shown or hidden when needed.

Summary

1. Go to the Arrange menu and click on Layers. Then select Layer Manager.

Layer Manager for ProcessModel

2. Add a new layer called Comments.

Comments Layer in ProcessModel

Username Comments Layer in ProcessModel

Important information to be aware of If you wish to create separate layer for each user, add multiple layers with usernames.

3. Click on the relevant comments or username layer to goto that layer.

4. Select the Text Tool from the left toolbar, click anywhere in the model and start typing the comments.

5. To hide the comments or username layer(s) move back to the main layer by clicking on it. Open the Layer Manager and uncheck Visible for the relevant layer(s).

Important information to be aware of In order to not print comments from the comments or username layer(s) uncheck the Printable checkbox.

2.1.6 – Working with Objects on Different Layers

Layers allow you 1) to place a background behind your model, 2) to create notes that will help you during development but be invisible during presentation, or 3) to organize different elements of your model.

How To – Work with Objects on Different Layers

1. Click the Chart layer tab to activate the Chart layer, if necessary.

2. On the Gallery palette, select the first item and place it on the screen.

3. Go down to the bottom tabs and select the Notes tab.

4. Select the Text tool. Then click on the model layout wherever you wish to place these notes. Type Notes for the entity.

Important information to be aware of Any new items placed on the screen will be placed on the active layer. You can only access and change an item when you have activated the layer on which the item was originally created.

Important information to be aware of To access a layer, you must first select the option “Visible” for that layer on the Layer Manager.

5. To temporarily make the text of the notes invisible, click on the Chart layer, then right mouse click on any tab (Chart or Notes in this case).

Important information to be aware of When a layer is activated, you cannot de-select the Visible option for text on that layer.

6. Select Layer Manager.

7. To hide the Notes, deselect the box Visible. Click OK. The item/object remains visible, but the text of the notes now becomes invisible.

Important information to be aware of When a layer is selected, you can edit only the objects and text from that layer. You can see objects or text from any other layers for which you have selected the option Visible on the Layer Manager, but you cannot access them (unless you have selected Edit All Layers).

8. To make the Notes visible again, right mouse click on the tab Notes again at the bottom of the screen. Click Layer Manager. Select the box Visible. Click OK.

9. On the File menu, click Close. When prompted to save the chart, click No.

Important information to be aware of It is possible to edit all layers at once. You can reach the Edit All Layers option by going to the pop-up menu for Tabs or to the Layer Manager. It is also possible to edit objects on all layers at once by clicking the right mouse button on a layer tab, and then clicking Edit All Layers.

Important information to be aware of If you are going to connect elements from different layers, you must be in Edit All Layers mode.

2.1.7 – Working with Shapes

In ProcessModel, shapes offer important capabilities that make them more powerful than ordinary graphics. Shapes have properties that allow them to represent your business operations and become part of simulations to test those operations. In contrast, graphics are simple pictorial enhancements to the charts on your screen displays. Graphics do not enhance the simulations. Instead, they offer you the capability to present more explanation as part of your screen displays.

ProcessModel also enables you to convert Shapes into Graphics or Graphics into Shapes through the Arrange menu. This ability means that you can design custom graphics, and easily embellish your models by adding new components.

selecting a different shape paletteWhether you are creating an organization chart or a process model, shapes are the components that make up a chart. ProcessModel provides the Gallery of hundreds of pre-drawn shapes and a drawing tool that lets you draw your own shapes. From this Gallery, you can select a set of shapes for each of your projects, create other unique shapes for those projects, and place all the shapes for a project on a specialized Palette. You can save any specialized Palette for later use.

The palette is the window holding the shapes (objects) to be used in the model to depict entities, activities, storages, and resources.

There are pre-configured palettes for Healthcare, Service, Logistics, Manufacturing, Military and many other industries. These may be customized by adding or removing objects or by modifying the individual shapes. The palette may be saved and other palettes may be selected. New palettes can be created and graphics imported. The default is selected during installation when the default industry is selected. To access the other palettes, select the drop down next to the word General at the top of the palette.

The first three sections of this tutorial teach you to:

• Open the Gallery and identify shapes
• Place shapes from the Gallery into the ProcessModel
• Position shapes on the page
• Number shapes

Adding Shapes to a Chart

How To – Add shapes to a chart

1. Click the File menu, and click on New Process.

Important information to be aware of The General palette contains shapes typically used in flowcharts. To complete this tutorial, you should have the General palette open. If the General palette is not open, press F9 to bring up the Manage Media menu. In Public Media Collections, double click on ProcessModel 5, and then double click on the General palette.

2. Rest the pointer over the green globe on the top row of the Shape palette. Its name is Item (Entity). Left click the green globe. It will be highlighted on the palette.

3. Move the pointer to the chart area, and click in the position where you wish to place the green globe. ProcessModel places the globe where you clicked.

4. To place additional shapes on the chart, return to the Shape palette. Highlight and place each shape by repeating steps 3 through 5.

How To – Automatically connect a new shape to an existing shape

1. Click on the Process shape on the left toolbar.

2. Position the pointer on the green globe you placed on the chart in the previous tutorial. The pointer changes to an image of two shapes connected by a line.adding-new-shape-entity

3. Point inside the globe shape, press and hold the left mouse button, and drag the pointer to the right of the shape. When you release the mouse button, the Process shape appears and is connected to the globe shape by a line.

Important information to be aware of You can click a shape in the Shape palette and drag it onto your chart. However, to automatically connect a new shape to an existing shape, you must use the method described in step 3.

4. On the File menu, click Close. Click No when prompted to save the chart.

How To – Place repeated copies of a shape

1. Double click on the Selector tool at the top of the left toolbar.

2. Click on the Box entity on the Shape palette. The Box will be highlighted.

3. Move the pointer to the chart area, and click in the position where you wish to place the first Box. ProcessModel places the Box where you clicked.

4. Move the pointer to another part of the chart, click to reset the tool, and click again. ProcessModel places another Box on the chart.

5. You can place as many Boxes as you wish on your chart by repeating this step. The copying mode for the Box remains activated until you click on another object on the palette or another option on the left toolbar.

6. On the File menu, click Close. Click No when prompted to save the chart.

Replacing Shapes

After a shape has been placed on the layout, it can be exchanged for any other shape. This avoids having to reconnect lines or re-enter data that has been entered previously.

How To – Replace a shapeReplace shape in processmodel

1. Click on the graphic(s) in the layout to be changed.

2. From the Arrange menu, select Replace Shape.

3. From the Replace Shape dialog select a shape from the Share Media tab, from the Shape Library tab by clicking on the Replace button. Alternatively a graphic can be pasted that was previously copied to the clipboard by clicking the Paste from Clipboard button.

No matter what type of graphic (Entity, Resource, Activity, etc.) is used to replace the current shape, the original settings of the shape on the layout will remain unchanged.

Drawing Shapes

In addition to placing predefined shapes into the chart, you can draw your own shapes. You can draw these shapes with the Draw tool:

drawing-shapes-process-simulation

How To – Draw shapes

1. Click the File menu, and click on New Process.

2. Click on the Draw button processmodel-draw-tool on the Standard Toolbar to activate the Draw Toolbar.

3. Click the Draw tool on the lower toolbar. A menu of shapes appears.

4. Click Ellipse.

5. Move the pointer to the center of the chart.

6. Press and hold the left mouse button, and drag the mouse down and to the right until the ellipse is two inches long and one half inch high.

7. Release the mouse button.

Important information to be aware of Use the tick marks on the ruler as you draw to measure how long the shape is.

8. Click the Draw tool, and then click Circle.

9. Draw a circle so that it fits neatly inside the ellipse.

Important information to be aware of If you need to reposition the circle after drawing it, follow the directions in Chapter 2, Section , Moving Shapes.

Important information to be aware of To resize a shape, see “Stretch or resize a shape” in Chapter 2.1.5.

Moving Shapes

Begin this exercise by drawing the Ellipse and Circle shape as you did in Draw shapes.

How To – Move a shape

1. Click the Selector tool.Moving Shapes

2. Click on the circle shape so you can move it. It will be highlighted on the screen with a frame surrounding it.

3. To move the whole shape, click in one of the hatched sections of the frame or hold the ALT key and click on the inside of the shape.

4. When the pointer becomes a four-headed arrow, you can drag the frame so the circle fits inside the ellipse.

Important information to be aware of The box will show eight black squares or handles that allow you to stretch the shape. If you position the pointer on one of the black handles and drag the shape, the shape will distort. To move the whole shape without stretching or resizing it, position the pointer ONLY in one of the hatched sections of the frame or hold the ALT key and select any portion of the graphic.

Stretching or Resizing a Shape

How To – Stretch or resize a shape

Begin this exercise by drawing the Ellipse and Circle shape as you did in Draw shapes.

1. Click the Selector tool.

2. Click on the circle shape. It will be highlighted on the screen with a frame surrounding it.

3. Left click on any one of the eight black handles on the frame, and hold down while you drag the handle.

4. Release when you have stretched the circle shape into the desired shape. Notice that it is possible to change the circle into an elliptical shape by stretching the circle disproportionately along its two axes.

5. You may also reshape any shape by right-clicking on it, and selecting the option Reshape from the menu.

Positioning Shapes on the Page

ProcessModel has the power to align and space shapes by snapping the shapes to a grid or by aligning shapes to ruler guidelines.

How To – Snap to grid

1. On the File menu, click New Process.adding activities to process

2. Place several shapes on the Layout.

3. On the Arrange menu, point to Grid and select Show Grid Dots. A grid of dots appears on the chart area.

4. Click the Selector tool. process simulation selector tool

5. Drag each shape so that the middle of the shape aligns to the same row of dots on the grid. Notice the shapes snap to the grid.

6. On the Arrange menu, point to Grid and select Show Grid Dots to turn off the grid dots.

How To – Align to guidelines

1. Point to the ruler on the left side of the window.

Important information to be aware of If rulers do not appear on the page, go to the View menu and click Rulers to make the rulers visible.

Important information to be aware of Click Arrange \ Gridlines, select an add option (Horizontal or Vertical). Then click your mouse at the desired position on your layout.

2. Press and hold the left mouse button, and drag a guideline out of the ruler.

3. Release the mouse button when the guideline is aligned with the 2-inch mark.

4. Drag each shape so that each is lined up with the guideline, creating line of three shapes on the page. Notice the shapes snap to the guideline.

5. To turn the guidelines off, go to the Arrange menu, point to Guidelines, and select Snap to Guidelines.

6. On the File menu, click Close. Click No when prompted to save the chart.

Important information to be aware of When you turn the guidelines off, they still exist and can be displayed by going to the Arrange menu, clicking on Guidelines, and choosing Snap to Guidelines. To end the display, click Guidelines again, and choose Snap to Guidelines again. To remove the guidelines, drag them back to the ruler.

How To – Align menu

1. On the File menu, click New Process.

2. Add two activities to the layout in a way that they do not align.

3. Click the Selector tool. Drag a box encompassing both shapes on the layout.

4. On the Arrange menu, point to Align and click Middle. All the shapes will align horizontally.

5. On the Arrange menu, point to Space Evenly and select Across Centers. All shapes will move so that they are spaced evenly.

6. On the File menu, click Close. Click No when prompted to save the chart.

Numbering Shapes

Each shape is numbered in the order in which you placed it on the chart. You can display or hide these numbers, and you can renumber the shapes if necessary.

How To – Number shapes

1. Click a rectangular activity shape on the Gallery, and then click the chart three times to place three shapes on the page.numbering shapes in processmodel

2. On the Format menu, point to Numbering, and then click Show All Shape Numbers.

3. On the Format menu, point to Numbering, and then click Manual Renumber.

4. Type 100.

5. Click on the object from which you want to begin the renumbering.

6. Click the pointer on each shape from left to right. The numbers on the shapes change to reflect the new numbers.

7. On the File menu, click Close. Click No when prompted to save the chart.

Changing the Default Font for Shapes

To change the default font for shapes in your model:

  1. Click Format.
  2. Click Diagram.
  3. Click the Defaults tab.
  4. Check the Shapes check box on the left.
  5. Click the Fonts button and select the desired font and point size.
  6. Click OK.

All new shapes placed in your model from that point on will use the font options you selected. This process will not change the font of shapes that already existed in your model, only shapes added after your change.

2.1.8 – Storing New Shapes in a Palette

When you have customized graphic or a set of shapes you want to use again, you can store them in a Palette. The best graphics format are WMF or EMF. Other graphic formats may be imported with varying success.

How To – Add Shapes to a Palette

1. Right-mouse-click on any shape in the palette. Select Add Files.

shapes-to-palette

2. Browse for .wmf or .emf graphics (other graphic formats are not supported) to import into the palette. Click Add to start the import.

add shapes to palettes

3. After the graphic is imported, double-click on the graphic to open the shape properties dialog. Name the shape and provide a “type” in parenthesis (Example: Worker (Resource) or Phone (Entity). The “type” determines the dialog that will appear when the shape is placed on the layout. If the shape is given no “type” in parenthesis then it will be assumed an activity. Adjust other properties as needed for connect points, text layout, etc.

A file that has been converted from a raster based format (i.e. .jpg or .gif) to a vector based format will not function like a native vector based graphic.

Caution: You should only import .wmf or .emf vector based graphic files. Other file formats (such as .jpg) may shift, change color, or display other kinds of distortion from the original graphic during simulation. “.bmp” files are not supported.

2.1.9 – Copying Shape Palettes

Copying Shape PalettesCopying shape palettes allows you to transfer a set of custom graphics to another computer or set of computers. It is accomplished by copying the ‘.ecf’ and ‘.sbj’ files and transferring them to the same directory path on the target computer.

The files containing the pallets shown under the Public Media Collection are located in your ProcessModel install directory. The directory can be found at this address:

  • 64BIT OS: C:/Program Files (x86)/ProcessModel/iGrafx/Pro/8.2/Palette/1033/
  • 32BIT OS: C:/Program Files/ProcessModel/iGrafx/Pro/8.2/Palette/1033/

The collection (gallery folder) file name uses up to 8 characters of the collection title and end with a ‘.ecf’ file extension. The ‘.ecf’ are all of the names of the palettes within the collection of ProcessModel and is called processm.ecf. This is what allows you to see all of the names of the palettes from the drop down.

The ‘.sbj’ files for processm.ecf can be found in the following directories:

  • 64BIT OS: C:/Program Files (x86)/ProcessModel/iGrafx/Pro/8.2/Palette/1033/ProceMod
  • 32BIT OS: C:/Program Files/ProcessModel/iGrafx/Pro/8.2/Palette/1033/ProceMod

The subject (gallery folder contents) file name uses up to 8 characters of the subject title and ends with a ‘.sjb’ extension. The items (graphics) are contained in the subject file.

2.1.10 – Adding a New Palette

Adding a New Palette into the gallery allows a new set of icons to be loaded into ProcessModel. It is often performed when a company specific palette is designed and distributed to all ProcessModel users.

  1. Find the (.SBJ) palette file you want to add and note its location. It would be helpful to put it with the other palettes but not required.
  2. Launch the Media Browser by clicking on the Options Menu icon.
  3. Click File \ Load Subject and locate and select the subject file from step 1.

 File path for other pallets installed within ProcessModel: C:/Program Files (x86)/ProcessModel/iGrafx/Pro/8.2/Palette/1033/ProceMod

 media browser from the options menu loading subject from the file menu

2.1.11 – Creating New Palettes

How To – Create a New Palette

1. In the Gallery, select the Options button.

shape palette options

2. Select New/Subject.

new subject shape palette

3. Type in the name of the Subject (palette) to be created. Then type in the name of the Collection the Subject will be placed under or which existing Subject it will be placed under.

adding new shape palette to processmodel

4. Press OK to create the new Collection and Subject.

Creating new palettes

• To add new shapes to the palette, see “Storing New Shapes in a Palette” in Chapter 2.1.6.

2.1.12 – Resizing Palette Icons

You can adjust the size of the icons in any shape palette by left clicking on any one of the shapes, then dragging the lower right hand corner of the icon to the size you would like.

resizing shape palette in processmodel

2.1.13 – Adjusting Text Layoutediting text layout of an object

  1. Right click on the object and select the Text Layout option.
  2. Adjust the margins in the desired direction.

The text layout on an entity will affect the size of the graphic displayed during the simulation.

The danger in flowcharts is that they can easily become cluttered and hard to read, with too many different symbols, too much text, or crisscrossing arrows. It requires great care to construct a good flowchart. It’s often better to break one large flowchart into several smaller ones.

Also see Adding Fields to Objects.

2.1.14 – Finding Shape Palette Icons

There are many icons available in the different shape palettes. Browsing for the one you want can be difficult. However, there is a Find feature available from the gallery Options Menu.

finding shapes via find function in processmodel

Not all icons have had keywords or descriptions entered. But some of the ProcessModel 5 palettes have them for you to experiment with, then add your own searchable keywords and descriptions. After clicking the Find option, enter the word you would like to search for (doctor in this example) and click the Find Now button.

find window for shape palette

All palette icons matching your search criteria will be displayed in the gallery for your use.

results of find

If you would like to save this new palette, you can click the Save button in the Find window.

Adding Keywords and Descriptions to Gallery Icons

All gallery icons are searchable by name. In addition, you can add keywords and descriptions to classify your icons into groups or categories, then search by those items. To add keywords or descriptions, right click an icon and select Properties.

Adding keywords to shapes

Enter the words you would like to search on in the Keywords and Descriptions fields and click OK.

2.1.15 – Working with Lines

ProcessModel gives you the ability to use two types of lines in your models: 1) connector lines and 2) Draw tool lines. Connector lines are best for flowcharts because they attach to shapes and remain attached, even when the shape is moved. In contrast, lines that you create with the Draw tool do not attach to shapes and cannot represent modeling information.

The remaining sections of this tutorial teach you to:

• Draw different types of Connector lines

• Draw lines using the Draw tool

• Change the style of lines

Drawing Connector Lines

There are several types of Connector lines: Direct, Right Angle, Curved, Org Chart, Cause and Effect, and Lightning Bolt lines. When you draw a Connector line, the line end defaults to an arrow.

Drawing a Direct Connector Line

The Direct Connector line is an alternate to the Right Angle line and can be used in creating process flow diagrams.

How To – Draw a direct connector line

1. On the File menu, click New Process.

2. Place several shapes on the layout as shown below.

adding activities to process

3. Click the arrow below the Connector Line tool, and click Direct Line. Direct Line

Important information to be aware of The button displays the currently selected Connector line. If the Direct Line is shown on the button, click the button rather than the arrow.

4. Left mouse click on the right center edge of Process, and drag the pointer to the left center edge of Process2. When you release the mouse button, a straight line with an arrow head is drawn.

Important information to be aware of Instead of dragging a line, you can click, move the pointer to the end point, and then click to end the line.

5. On the File menu, click Close. Click No when prompted to save the chart.

Drawing a Right Angle Line

A Right Angle line is a default line used in developing a process model.

How To – Draw a right angle line

1. On the File menu, click New Process.

2. Place several shapes on the layout as shown below.

adding activities to process

3. Click the arrow below the Connector Line tool, and click Right Angle Line. Right Angle Line

4. Left mouse click on the right center edge of Process, and drag the pointer to the left center edge of Process2. When you release the mouse button, a right angle line with an arrowhead is drawn.

right angle line between two processes

5. On the File menu, click Close. Click No when prompted to save the chart.

Drawing a Curved Connector Line

The Curved Connector Line is a specialty line that should be used sparingly in ProcessModel because it takes up a additional memory during simulation.

How To – Draw a curved connector line

1. On the File menu, click New Process.

2. Add two activities to the document in a way that they do not align.

3. Click the arrow below the Connector Line tool, and click Curved Line. Curved Line

4. Drag the pointer from the center of the left edge of Process to the center of the right edge of Process2. A curved line is created automatically. Notice the handles that appear when you finish the curve. These handles are called control points and let you reshape the curve.

control point curved lines

5. Click the Selector tool. Selector tool

6. Drag the top control point to the right. A line attached to the end point of the line appears. This control moves with your pointer and affects the curvature of the line. The blue line is a preview of how the curve will look when you finish.

Drawing an Org Chart Lineorg chart lines in processmodel

The Org Chart Line is a specialty line for creating organizational charts where multiple lines to shapes must stack on top of each other. It is also useful for creating general tree diagrams or for creating process models when the line behavior of an Org Chart line is desired.

How To – Draw an org chart line

1. Click the arrow below the Connector Line tool, and click Org Chart Line. Org Chart lines work best when dragging a shape from another shape. Org Chart Line

2. Click a Process shape on the Shape palette, and click the chart area.

3. To place a second process shape, click a Process shape again in the Shape palette.

4. Point to the first Process shape you placed on the chart. The pointer changes to an image of two shapes connected by a line.

5. Click and hold the left mouse button, and drag the pointer down and to the right of the shape. Click and hold

Click and hold

6. To place a 3rd Process shape, click the Process shape in the palette.

7. Move the pointer onto the top Process shape, and drag the pointer down and to the left of the shape.

The two lines connecting the lower process shapes will be aligned with each other.

Drawing a Cause and Effect Line

The Cause and Effect Line is a specialty line used to define Ishakawa or fishbone diagrams. Cause and Effect Lines should not be used to develop process models.

How To – Draw a cause and effect line

1. On the File menu, click New Process.

2. Click the arrow below the Connector Line tool, and click Cause and Effect Line. Cause and Effect Line

3. Click the left mouse button, and drag a line. This is the backbone of the cause-and-effect line.

4. Click a spot on the line, and draw a new line outward. Notice if you move the pointer, the line snaps to certain angles.

5. Release the mouse button. The text cursor appears at the end of the line so you can type a label.cause and effect line

6. Click the Selector tool. Selector tool

7. On the Edit menu, click Select All, and then press Delete.

Drawing a Lightning Bolt Line

A lightning bolt line represents more than the simple transfer of items between process steps. It depicts a break in the system during which there is behind-the-scene activity.

The lightning bolt line allows you to add a line after a ProcessModel is developed or to replace a process routing line.

How To – Draw a lightning bolt line

1. On the File menu, click New Process.

2. Add two activities to the document in a way that they do not align.

3. Click the arrow below the Connector Line tool, and click Lightning Bolt Line. Lightning Bolt Line

4. Left mouse click on the right center edge of Process, and drag the pointer to the left center edge of Process2. When you release the mouse button, a lightning bolt line with an arrow head is drawn.

5. To draw a Lightning Bolt line with an origin outside one of your processes and a connect point in Process 2, click on Lightning Bolt.

6. Click outside Process 2 and drag a line to the bottom edge of Process 2. When you release the mouse button, a lightning bolt line with an arrowhead is drawn, ending at Process 2.

lightning bolt connector line in processmdoel

7. On the File menu, click Close. Click No when prompted to save the chart.

Drawing Lines with the Draw Tool

The lines you draw with the Draw tool are not like other lines in the process models you create. Draw lines do not represent a process route and do not carry ProcessModel information. They are graphics only.

Draw tool lines offer you the advantage of adding graphical information to your process depiction. They can also exist on a background layer of the ProcessModel separate from the main model. Draw tool lines are not used in running the simulation, and you do not collect statistics related to them.

You access the Draw tool by clicking on the pencil symbol on the upper toolbar. This displays a separate toolbar across the bottom of the screen. On that toolbar, you can click on the Draw tool to select from a menu of shapes and lines. You can also manipulate the shapes, access the Layer Manager, and set features of the lines such as color, weight, style, types of arrowheads, and crossovers.

The Draw tool gives you two options for drawing lines: Jointed Line and Curved Line. With the jointed line, you can also draw straight lines, and with the curved line, you can also draw arcs.

How To – Draw lines with the Draw Tool

1. Click the Draw tool.

2. Click Jointed Line. Jointed Line

3. Click the left mouse button, drag the pointer and release to draw a line.Jointed Line

4. Click the left mouse button, move the pointer, and click to draw a line. Continue to click the mouse button at various points to create new line segments. Then double-click to complete a jointed line.

5. To move the entire jointed line, click in the hatched area of the frame. When the pointer changes to the four-headed arrow, you can drag and release to place the whole frame in a new location.

6. To stretch the graphic, click on one of the six handles on the frame and drag.

7. On the File menu, click Close . Click No when prompted to save the chart.

Formatting Lines

You can set many formatting styles for both Connector lines and lines drawn with the Draw tool. Formatting options include dotted or dashed, heavy or light, line ends, color, fill, and crossovers.

How To – Format lines

1. On the File menu, click New Process.Format lines

2. Add four shapes to the layout as shown below.

3. Using the connector lines connect, the activities opposite to each other.

4. Click on the Draw button to activate the draw toolbar (if the draw toolbar at the bottom of the screen is not already showing).

5. Click the line between the two yellow shapes.

6. Click the arrow on the Line Color button, and click red.  Line Color

7. Click the Line Weight button, and click the third option.  Line Weight

8. Click the Line Style button, and click the second option.Line Style

9. Click the line between the two blue shapes.

Important information to be aware of You can also format lines using the Line/Border command on the Format menu.

10. Click the Crossovers button, and click the second option. This affects lines that cross each other.  Crossovers

11. Click the right-angle line to the right of the Decision shape. Crossovers

12. On the File menu, click Close . Click No when prompted to save the chart.

Attaching Connector Lines to Shapes

When attaching connector lines, connect points appear on the target shape. The line end snaps to the connect point.

How To – Attach connector lines to shapes

1. Click the File menu, and click on New Process.

2. Place two activity shapes from the Gallery on the chart, one beside the other.

3. Click the arrow on the Connector Line tool, and click Direct Line.  Direct Line

4. Click anywhere on the first shape. Notice the points that appear around the outline of the shape. These are the connect points.

5. Move the pointer to the middle point on the right side of the shape. The line snaps to the point. Drawing direct lines

6. Drag the line toward the second shape. Notice the connect points appear on the second shape.Direct line snapping to activty

7. Click when the line is attached to the middle point on the left side of the second shape.

8. Click the Finished button when finished.

9. Drag the second shape down one inch. The Connector line remains attached to both shapes.

Changing the Connect Point

Once a Connector line is attached to a shape, you may want the line attached to a different point. You can change the point to which the line is connected.

How To – Change the connect point

1. Click the Connector line to select it.

2. Move the pointer to the connect point on the left shape. The pointer changes to a plus sign with a Direct line indicating you can change the connect point. Connect Point

3. Drag the point to the lower right corner point, and release the mouse button.

4. Move the pointer to the connect point on the right shape.Connect Point to activity

Important information to be aware of You can change the attachment point of filled lines in the same manner as non-filled lines.

5. Drag the point to the upper left corner point, and release the mouse button.

6. On the File menu, click Close . Click No when prompted to save the chart.

2.1.16 – Working with Off-Page Connectors

These connectors provide an easy method of tracing routings for a model that is printed and placed in a binder. When Off-Page Connectors are activated, all routings that cross page boundaries are divided and a corresponding flag is placed on each side of the break. Some examples of Off-Page Connectors are shown below.Off-Page Connectors

How To – Show Off-Page Connectors for the Entire Diagram

1. On the Format menu, click Diagram.

2. From the Format Diagram dialog, click on the Off_page Connectors tab.

3. Select the appropriate check boxes.

How To – Show Off-Page Connectors for One Routing

1. Select the routing for which you would like to show Off-Page Connectors.

2. Right-mouse click on the selected line.

3. From the pop-up menu, select Format.

4. From the Format dialog, select the Arrows and Crossovers tab.

5. Select the Connectors check box.

2.1.17 – Working with Text

You can add text to your chart in several ways. Free form text is a separate text object that is not attached to a shape and can be moved freely around the page. You can also attach text to a shape or line so that it moves with the shape or line.

This tutorial has three sections:

• Adding and Editing Free form Text
• Attaching Text to Lines
• Editing Attached Text

This tutorial is designed to teach you to:

• edit free form text
• attach text to lines
• edit attached text

Adding and Editing Free form Text

How To – Add and edit free form textadding activities to process

1. Click the New Process button on the toolbar.

2. Click the Text tool. Text tool

3. Click in the upper left portion of the screen, and type Yellow and Blue.

4. Click the Selector Tool. Selector tool

5. Click on the Font tab in the Gallery.

6. Change the font size to 32.Editing text

7. Change the font style to Bold, by pressing the Bold button.

8. Change the font style by selecting another font.

9. Click on the Draw button to activate the Draw Toolbar (if it is not already activated). Draw button icon in processmodel

draw button in processmodel

10. Highlight the word Yellow.

11. Click on the Text Color button and select yellow as the color.  Text Color

12. Click on the Fill tab in the Gallery.

13. From the drop down box, select Fill Gradient.Fill Gradient

14. Select a horizontal gradient fill. gradient fill

15. Select the End Color from the bottom of the page.

End Color

16. Change the end color to light gray, then click outside the text box. Change text color

Attaching Text to Lines

You can easily attach text to lines so that when they are moved, the text moves with them.

How To – Attach text to shapes and lines

1. Click on a route that is attached to a line.Text to Lines

2. Type Yes. The text attaches to the line.

3. If the line runs through the text, select a fill color of white.

Important information to be aware of If you have difficulty selecting text that is attached to lines, drag a selection box around the text that is large enough to encompass the text but not other graphics.

Editing Attached Text

How To – Edit attached text

1. With the selector tool highlighted, select any attached text. Attached Text

2. Any typing will replace the current text…or

3. Click a second time on the text to enter into a edit text mode. Attached Text

Important information to be aware of You can change the format of any text (size, color, font) using the methods described in this section.

2.2 – Departments / Swimlanes

See Swimlanes video tutorial.

You can use departments to display the flow of information and materials between different roles, groups or organizational units. These departments, or lanes, show a division of work that is apparent without disturbing the overall flow of the process.

Since Swimlane charts help identify what happens in each department during a process, they are good tools for tracking time and quality management.

As a model operates, ProcessModel can visually communicate the handoffs between departments. These points become opportunities to reduce errors and miscommunication.

ProcessModel refers informally to departments as Swimlanes because the graphic representation of the departments resembles a swimming pool with separate travel lanes marked for each participant (or department). In the model, you depict the activities of each department in its separate area on the chart, and watch them operate in relationship with each other.

The intelligent departments in ProcessModel combine a flow chart’s depiction of logic with an interaction diagram’s depiction of responsibility. In process diagramming, departments help show how tasks flow through groups such as manufacturing and customer service toward a final outcome or creation of a product. Many processes contain sub-processes that appear in their own departments.

Shapes behave the same in departments as they do on a normal diagram page. You can still connect lines, edit points, size, move, delete, change the text, or change the color of shapes. In addition, you can:

• Name departments
• Set the vertical or horizontal orientation of departments
• Expand or shrink departments
• Reorder departments
• Move the location of department names

2.2.1 – Setting Up Departments: A Tutorial

This section contains a tutorial in which you will create a ProcessModel with several departments. Setting Up Departments: Basic Procedures contains a series of basic procedures you will use to create that ProcessModel. These procedures will be a useful reference as you build future models.

In creating this Swimlane chart, you will learn to:

• Create lanes using the Department tool
• Label department headers
• Label department shapes
• Connect shapes between lanes

Important information to be aware of To change Swimlane properties, right mouse click on your Swimlane chart. Click Properties to add departments and change settings such as colors, department names, line styles, and lane widths.

Step 1: Creating and Naming Departments

You will create a ProcessModel of an organization with four departments.

How To – Create and Name Departmentsdepartment tool in processmodel

1. Click the File menu, and point to New Process.

2. Click on the Department symbol on the left toolbar.

3. The Insert Departments dialog box appears. In the Insert Departments dialog box, both the Department Orientation and the Text Orientation should be set to Horizontal.

Important information to be aware of To create a vertical swimlane choose Vertical.

4. In the display box, click the default department name. ProcessModel highlights the default name Dept. 1.

5. Click Edit.

editing departments in processmodel

6. Type Sales and click Add. ProcessModel displays a model with Sales as the label on the first department.

Important information to be aware of When you create departments for the first time in a diagram, you can set the department orientation and text orientation for headers. After you have created your departments, you edit them in the diagram space.

7. Click the Department tool. The Insert Department screen appears. Click Add.

8. In New Department Name, type Shipping. Click Add. The new department name Shipping appears on the Department list.

9. Click Add again. In New Department, type Mfg. Click Add.

adding department names to processmodel

10. Repeat steps 5 and 6 to add Accounting (Acct.) to the Department list.

11. Click OK and the completed Swimlane chart appears, showing the four departments.

Step 2: Placing Processes in each Department

You will place an entity and a series of process steps in the ProcessModel. You will also show the process route that the entity will follow through these steps.

How To – Place and label processesdepartments laid out in processmodel

1. Go to the Palette and click on the first item (the green globe). The green globe will be the entity that flows through the process steps.

2. Place the globe in the Sales Department by clicking in the blank Swimlane to the right of the box labeled Sales. (ProcessModel will not allow you to place the globe in the department label space.)

3. To place a Process related to the green globe entity, go to the Palette and click on the Process symbol (rectangle).

4. Click on the globe on your model, hold down the mouse, and drag the Process symbol to the right. The ProcessModel route shows that Process involves the globe entity.

5. To add a second process, go to the Palette, and click on the Process symbol. Click in the activity called Process and drag to the right and then down.

(Notice that the Swimlane expands vertically to accommodate Activity2 2.) Activity 2 is now linked to Process by a route.

swimlanes expanding on adding object

Important information to be aware of If any part of a graphic (entity, activity, resource, etc.) touches a department divider, then the department will expand to encompass that shape. When a graphic is moved into the next department, the preceding lane department lane will shrink to the minimum size possible to encompass the remaining graphics.

6. To change the department in which Process 2 occurs, click on the edge of Process 2 and drag it down into the Manufacturing department. The process route line automatically lengthens to reach into the new department and the sales department lane resizes to fit the remaining graphics.

To create an activity spanning multiple departments of a Swim-lane chart, after placing an activity in a department of the swimlane, select the activity, press ctrl and right-click on any one of the eight black handles on the frame, hold down while you drag the handle and “stretch” the activity across multiple departments.

7. To place the next process in the Shipping department, select the Process activity from the Palette, click in Process 2, and drag to the right and then up into the Shipping lane.

8. Repeat this procedure to place Process 4 in the Accounting Department. (If the box representing Process 4 crosses the dotted line on the screen, it means that the model is wider than the 8-1/2 by 11-inch page.)

Step 3: Reordering Departments

You will reorder the Departments into this sequence: Sales, Manufacturing, Shipping, and Accounting.

How To – Reorder Departmentsreordering departments

1. Click on the department label of the Manufacturing department. The box will be highlighted.

2. Click any area on the frame between the black squares. The cursor changes to four arrows.

3. Drag the Manufacturing lane to a position above the Shipping lane. The four lanes or departments now appear in this order: Sales, Manufacturing, Shipping, and Accounting.

4. The processes in the four lanes realign automatically to simplify the routing lines.

Step 4: Renaming a Department

You will rename the Sales department as the Sales Organization department.

How To – Rename a Department

1. Click on the Sales department label. Click on the word Sales. The Text tool becomes highlighted and the cursor changes to a text cursor.

2. Position the Text tool at the end of the word Sales and add the word Organization. Notice that part of the word wraps to the next line.

3. To widen the title box, click on the Selector tool and drag the right side of the box to the right. The label will now appear on one line.

4. On the File menu, click Close. Click No when prompted to save the chart.

2.2.2 – Setting Up Departments: Basic Procedures

How To – Insert a department

1. On the Insert menu, click Department, or click the Department tool. Insert department icon

2. In the Insert Departments dialog box, type in the name of the new department and click Apply.

3. Click OK.

How To – Set the lane orientation of departments

1. Click the Department tool.

2. Under Department Orientation, select Horizontal or Vertical.

3. Click OK.

Important information to be aware of You can only set the lane orientation of departments the first time you add departments to a diagram.

How To – Set the text orientation of department labels

1. Click the Department tool.

2. Under Text Orientation, select Horizontal or Vertical.

3. Click OK.

Important information to be aware of You can only set the text orientation of department labels the first time you add departments to a diagram.

How To – Change the location of department names

1. In an active diagram, click a department label.

2. Click the right mouse button, and click Format Diagram.

3. In the Process tab, select a name location from the Department Name Area list.

4. Click OK.

How To – Add a color, pattern, or gradient to departments

1. In an active diagram, click a department label.

2. In the Gallery, click the Fill tab, select Fill Color, Fill Pattern, or Fill Gradient, and then click a color, pattern, or gradient.

3. Repeat the same procedure for lines and shadows/3D.

Resources disappeared after changing the color of the swimlanes? The “Fill” option on the format menu covers the resources. Set the Fill type to None, then use Format / Diagram / Process to set the department colors.

How To – Add borders and dividers to department lanes

1. In an active diagram, click a department label.

2. Click the right mouse button, and click Format Diagram.

3. Click the Borders and Dividers tab, and select the area you would like to apply borders or dividers from the list.

4. Select from the various line types, styles, widths, and colors available.

5. Click OK.

How To – Edit text in department headers

1. Click the department header.

2. The cursor changes to a text cursor.

3. Delete the text, and type a new name.

How To – Delete a department

1. Click the department header, and press DELETE.

How To – Reorder departments

1. Click the department header that you want to move.

2. Click any area between the black squares.

3. The cursor changes to four arrows.

4. For horizontal departments, drag the department up or down to the desired position.

5. For vertical departments, drag the department left or right to the desired position.

How To – Change lane margins and minimum lane size

1. In an active diagram, click a department label.

2. Click the right mouse button, and click Format Diagram.

3. Click the Lanes tab, and change the bottom margin, end margin, and minimum lane size.

4. Click OK.

User's guide chapter 2 section 3 & 4



Previous: Chapter 1 Next: Chapter 3

2.3 – Cause-and-Effect Charts

To improve the outcome of a situation, we must understand the factors operating in it. ProcessModel gives you the tools to understand the effects of timing, delays, and interactions among components in a process. However, other types of factors may require another analysis tool called a cause-and-effect chart. Cause-and-effect analysis helps to highlight all the causes of a problem and to identify the root causes before trying to solve it.

2.3.1 – Working with Cause-and-Effect Charts

ProcessModel offers a process analysis feature for gathering, sorting, and relating information in cause-and-effect charts, also called Ishikawa or fishbone charts. These charts can be used to relate causes to their effects and to determine their levels of influence. They are also excellent for documenting team brainstorming sessions.

An Ishakawa chart shows the major causes which may contribute to a problem. Then for each major cause you can diagram the contributing primary causes. For each primary cause you may also identify sub causes. Sub Causes, or root causes, are the underlying factors that affect a situation.

Cause-and-effect lines, however, do not have process properties. In other words, they carry no processing information behind them. Instead, the cause-and-effect analysis is a support diagram that helps you understand problems. Because the cause-and-effect diagram can help you determine where to focus your further analysis, it is the basis for designing an accurate ProcessModel of your process.

2.3.2 – Identifying Cause and Effect: A Tutorial

This section describes how to use ProcessModel to analyze a problem with a cause-and-effect chart. This tutorial has four sections:

• Stating the problem
• Identifying major causes
• Identifying primary causes and sub-causes
• Using information to improve processes

In creating this cause-and-effect chart, you will learn to:

• Set up and label a cause-and-effect chart
• Move causes from one area of the chart to another
• Add and delete causes

Use the example of a procurement department that is slow in processing its purchase requisitions. You want to find out why the department is not able to process more requisitions. You resist a quick fix and decide to look at all the possible causes. A good way to do this is to develop a cause-and-effect chart.

Begin with a clear statement of the basic problem or desired effect: the Procurement Department processes too few transactions.

Then identify major causes of the effect. These can be skills, procedures, information systems, authority, or any other relevant causes that lead to the situation you are examining.

When considering the causes of any effect, examine the five Ms:

• Man (people)
• Machine (technology)
• Method (process)
• Material (structure)
• Milieu (environment)

In each of these five areas, review the process in the procurement department to identify major causes that lead to slow processing. For example, the number of workers in the office may affect the number of transactions that the Procurement Office can process. Identify each primary cause, and identify sub-causes for each cause. Your diagram will ultimately display a complete list of causes and sub-causes.

In the procurement department example, you identify two problems that can be solved simply. The first problem occurs in the area of Process, where you find that incomplete forms are being recorded in the log. The second problem occurs in the area of Structure, where you find that company regulations require the Procurement Manager to review and authorize all discrepancies. This step creates a backlog whenever the manager is unavailable.

For the third major cause, People, the primary cause of slow processing is a need for software training. In Technology, the primary cause is the need for a form that staff can e-mail to the procurement department.

By identifying the root causes, you can improve the process and solve the problem. By eliminating the problems identified in Process and Structure, you can expect to see improvement. By providing the training identified in People and Technology, you can expect to see more improvement.

The cause-and-effect diagram provides a method for a group of people to define, categorize and agree on the major causes of a problem process.

Step 1: Stating the Problem

How To – Set up the Cause-and-Effect Chart

1. Click the Selector tool. Selector tool

2. On the General Palette, click the rounded rectangle.

3. Click on the right side of the work area to place the shape for the effect or problem.

4. While the box is selected, type the problem statement: Procurement handles orders too slowly.

5. Click on the Connector Line tool on the left toolbar, and select the cause-and-effect style line to draw a horizontal line from a point on the left side of the work area toward the Effect box on the right. This forms the spine of the “fish.” Cause and Effect Line

Procurement activity for process simulation

Step 2: Identifying Major Causes

How To – Place and label major causes

1. For each major cause, draw a diagonal line from the top of the work area to the spine or from the bottom of the work area to the spine.

2. For those major causes that you identify, place a rectangle shape at the end of the diagonal lines (leaning left). Adjust lines and size the shapes as necessary. In our example, we identify four major causes: process, people, technology, and structure.

3. Label each of these by typing while the box is still selected. The mode automatically changes to Text.

Cause and effect diagram explained

The chart is easy to edit. Simply drag lines from their midsections and snap lines to and from other lines. Movement works by hierarchy. If you move the spine, all attached lines will move. If you move a major cause, all sub-causes and root causes will move, but not the spine.

Step 3: Identifying Primary Causes and Sub-Causes

How To – Place and label primary and sub-causes

1. For each major cause, identify the primary causes.

In our example, we identify two problems that can be solved simply. For the major cause People , the primary cause of slow processing is a need for software training. In the major cause Technology, the primary cause is the need for a form that staff can e-mail to the procurement department.

2. Identify each primary cause and label it on a horizontal line leading from the major causes.

Cause and effect diagram explained

3. Identify sub-causes for each cause, and add them to your diagram as diagonal and horizontal lines radiating from each cause until you have enough detail. The diagram will ultimately display a complete list of causes and sub-causes.

Cause and effect diagram explained

Move the text block as needed and use the Fill tab in the Gallery to color the background of the text as desired.

Step 4: Using Information about Causes to Improve Processes

By identifying the root causes, you can improve the process and solve the problem. By eliminating the problem identified in Process and Structure, you can expect to see some improvement. By providing the training identified in People and the new form required in Technology, you can expect to see more improvement.

2.3.3 – Identifying Cause-and-Effect: Basic Procedures

Creating Cause-and-Effect Chart

How To – Create cause-and-effect chart

1. Click the Selector tool. Selector tool

2. On the General Palette, click the rounded rectangle.

3. Click on the right side of the work area to place the shape for the effect or problem.

4. While the box is selected, type the problem statement.

5. Click on the Connector Line tool selector on the left toolbar, and select the cause-and-effect style line.

line selector tool for processmodel

6. Draw a horizontal line from a point on the left side of the work area toward the Effect box on the right. This forms the spine of the “fish.”

Cause and effect process for process improvement

7. Click on the Line Connector tool.

8. Click on a point above the spine. Press and hold the left mouse button, and drag downward to draw a new line that attaches to the spine.

9. Add a cause-and-effect line for each cause you identified. Arrange the lines above or below the spine so they are evenly spaced and easy to read.

Important information to be aware of Double-click on the Connector Line tool to draw several cause lines in succession. Select the finish button to exit the line mode.

Creating and Labeling Cause Shapes

How To – Create and label cause shapes

1. For each major cause you identify, place an activity shape at the end of the diagonal lines you have drawn.

2. Label each cause box by selecting the box. When the mode automatically changes to text, you can type a label in the box.

3. Press and hold Shift, and click to select all of the shapes you labeled.

4. On the Arrange menu, point to Make Same Size, and click Fit to Text.

Moving a Line

How To – Move a line

1. Click the line you want to move.

2. Drag the line to the new location. The line, the shape at the end of it, and all dependent lines pointing to it will move with it.

3. To stretch the line, click on the line. Handles appear on either end of the line.

4. Grab the handle of the line and drag until it is the length you desire.

Deleting a Line

How To – Delete a line

1. Click the line attached to the shape you want to delete.

2. Press Delete. The line, the shape at the end of it, and all dependent lines pointing to it are deleted.

2.4 – Business Diagrams — Working with iGridsBusiness Diagrams

With ProcessModel you can create several types of business charts to establish understanding of difficult concepts or relationships. These charts can then be used separately or linked with process models to create a complete picture of the operating environment in which a process operates. Business diagrams that can be created with iGrids include:

• Block
• Circle and Spoke
• Cascade
• Checklist
• Comparison
• Deployment
• Pyramid
• Target
• Timeline

Example business diagrams created using iGrids are shown above.

2.4.1 – Working with iGrids

Business charts are easy to create because ProcessModel has built-in automation called iGrids. These iGrids prompt you for the information to make professional looking business diagrams quickly. A tutorial for a Pyramid chart follows to demonstrate the basic procedure. Each of the other iGrids work in a similar fashion.

2.4.2 – Working with a Pyramid Chart: A Tutorial

This tutorial has five sections:

• Inserting the Pyramid iGrid
• Labeling the Pyramid levels
• Adding color to the Pyramid levels
• Changing the Pyramid levels
• Adding a 3D effect

In creating this pyramid chart, you will learn to:

• Insert the Pyramid iGrid
• Label the Pyramid levels
• Add color to the Pyramid levels
• Change the Pyramid settings
• Add a 3D effect

In this tutorial, you create the following pyramid chart using a iGrid.

iGrid

Inserting the Pyramid iGrid

The first step is to select the basic shape you will use and to set the number of levels and dimensions for the layers of the pyramid.

How To – Insert the Pyramid iGrid

1. Click the File menu, and point to New Process.

2. Click Blank Page.

3. On the Insert menu, click iGrid. A dialog box of available iGrids opens. Basic is selected.

4. Select Pyramid, and click OK.

5. Type 4 in the Number of Levels box, type 1.5 in the Level Height box, .2 in the Spacing Between Levels box, and 6.5 in the Pyramid Base Width box.

Pyramid iGrid

6. Click OK . The pyramid outline appears on the screen. This outline is the iGrid.

iGrid outline

Step 2: Labeling the Pyramid Levels

You will select the font, font size, and font style for the labels on each level of the pyramid. Then you will place those labels on each level.

How To – Label the Pyramid Levels

1. In the Gallery, click on Font.

Changing pyramid igrid fonts

2. Type 18 in the Font Size box. Click the Bold button to apply the bold style.

Changing pyramid igrid fonts

3. Click on the General palette in the Gallery. Click the Process shape in the Shape palette.

Changing pyramid igrid fonts

4. Click each of the pyramid levels. The shape is placed in the pyramid, and each shape conforms to the outline.

Renaming process in igrid

5. Click the Selector tool.

6. Click the top level of the pyramid, and type Teamwork.

7. Click the second level, and type Communication.

8. Click the third level, and type Customer Support.

9. Click the bottom level, and type Quality Products and Services.

Adding Color to the Pyramid Levels

How To – Add Color to the Pyramid Levels

1. Click the top level.

2. Click Fill tab in the Gallery, and click light blue.

3. Fill each level with different shades of blue, from lightest to darkest.

Changing the Pyramid Settings

When you insert a iGrid, you specify settings for the chart. In the case of the Pyramid chart, you set the number of levels, level height, space between levels, and base width. After the chart is on the page, you can change these settings.

How To – Change the Pyramid Settings

1. Click the right mouse button on the iGrid. Do not click one of the levels, however. You must click outside the chart.

Pyramid Settings

2. Click Edit iGrid. Handles appear on the chart, and a new toolbar opens.

Edit iGrid

Important information to be aware of The toolbar contains buttons that let you insert, delete, and split a level in half. To activate these buttons, you must select one of the levels in the chart.

3. Point to one of the handles. The pointer changes to indicate you can adjust the chart size.

4. Drag the pointer up. The chart height tightens. Dragging the pointer down lengthens the chart.

5. Click the Finished button on the Pyramid toolbar.

How To – Add a 3D Effect

1. Click the Selector tool.

2. Click the top level of the pyramid.

3. Press and hold Shift while clicking the other three levels of the pyramid. This selects all levels at once.

4. Click the Shadow/3D tab in the Gallery.

3D Effect

5. Click the option in the first row, first column.

3D Effect iGrid

6. On the File menu, click Close. Click No when prompted to save the chart.

User's guide chapter 2 section 5 & 6



Previous: Chapter 1 Next: Chapter 3

2.5 – SPC Charts

Statistical Process Control (SPC) charts support your quality and process engineering. You can use them to identify key areas for improvement in a process, and then to monitor process improvement over time. They present complex data in easy to understand formats.

There are several types of SPC charts: Histograms, Run charts (trend charts), Pareto charts, Control charts, Scatter charts, and Pie charts. They are all valuable as planning tools. The next two parts of this section will focus on Pareto charts as an example of how you can use SPC analysis to improve your business planning. The final two parts of this section discuss the use of Control charts to track variation in performance.

2.5.1 – Working with SPC Charts

To select and place SPC charts in a diagram, use the DataAnalyzer Chart wizard on the Insert menu. Select which SPC chart you want to use, and then type your information into the active spreadsheet in the diagram space. DataAnalyzer will graphically convert the data for display in the diagram.

2.5.2 – Using Pareto Charts to Prioritize Process Improvement Efforts

Pareto charts allow you to gather data about the problems you are examining and present graphic representation of the frequency or size of each problem. This provides a way to identify those problems that offer the greatest opportunities for improvement.

The Pareto chart is based on the idea known as the 80-20 Rule: that 80 percent of any result can be attributed to 20 percent of the activities. For example, of 100 errors, 80 can be eliminated by correcting only 20 percent of the causes. The Pareto chart allows you to present your cause data so you can prioritize the causes on which you will focus. It also guides you away from choosing solutions that will worsen the existing situation.

A Pareto chart gives you a different type of information than other ProcessModel analyses provide. Typically, a ProcessModel identifies 1) processing bottlenecks, 2) interdependency problems, 3) resource constraints, 4) cycle time problems, and 5) non-determinate processes. In contrast, a Pareto chart 1) identifies how significant each contributing cause is in a situation, and 2) gives you a visual format to show that relative significance to other people.

Pareto Charts

Analyzing a Situation with a Pareto chart

The basic steps for analyzing a situation with a Pareto chart are:

1. Identify the general problem area you want to investigate and, within that problem, select the specific issues you will analyze.

2. Choose the most useful unit of measurement (such as frequency or cost) for your data collection.

3. Choose the time period for your data collection.

4. Gather current data or review historical data.

5. Compare the relative frequency or cost of each problem category.

6. Set up a Pareto graph by placing the problem categories on the horizontal line and the frequencies on the vertical line. Include the unit of measurement in the chart labels.

7. (Optional) Draw a cumulative percentage line showing the portion of the total that each problem category represents.

8. Interpret the results. Ask: What factor has the most impact on the goals of our business and customers? Remember that the most frequent or most expensive factor is not always the most important.

Variations of the basic Pareto chart can provide additional information by displaying the basic data in different ways. Frequently used variations include:

Major Cause Breakdowns—Break down the tallest bar (i.e. often the cause with greatest effect) into subcauses in a second, linked Pareto.

Before and After Comparisons—Draw “new” Pareto bars side by side with the original Pareto to show the effect of a change. Present the comparison as one single chart or two separate charts.

Data from Multiple Sources—In side-by-side Pareto Charts, show data you have collected on the same problem but from different departments, locations, equipment, and so on.

Data in Different Measurement Scales—Use the same categories, but measure your results differently. For example, compare the measurement of cost and frequency for the same categories.

2.5.3 – Using a Pareto Chart: A Tutorial

Step 1: Setting up the Chart

How To – Select Pareto Chart

1. Click the File menu, and point to New Process.

2. On the Insert menu, click the SPC Chart button. The Chart wizard will appear.

3. On the wizard, click Next to view a list of chart types.

4. Select the Pareto chart from the list in the Chart wizard.

5. Click Finish. A blank data chart will appear.

Pareto Charts

Step 2: Putting Data into the Spreadsheet

How To – Enter data and adjust labels

1. Notice the tabs in the lower left corner. The Spreadsheet tab lets you view and modify the spreadsheet data. The Chart tab lets you view and modify the chart.

2. Double-click the column heading Label. The Column Header Text dialog box opens.

3. Type Process Step, and click OK. Notice the column is not wide enough to display the entire heading.

4. Point to the line between the two column headings. A horizontal double headed arrow appears. Horizontal double headed arrow

5. Drag the line to increase the width of the column until you can see the entire heading.

Adding data to spreadsheet

6. Label the other column Idle Time (hours).

7. Type in the names of the process steps and the idle times in hours.

Adding data to spreadsheet

Step 3: Displaying Data in a Pareto Chart

How To – Display Pareto chart

1. Once you have the Idle Time information and Step Labels in the spreadsheet, click Chart at the bottom of the spreadsheet. A Pareto chart appears, displaying the data you entered.

Display Pareto chart

2. The following results are shown:

The “Receive Approved Purchase Requisition from Manager” step appears first and displays at the far left position. It shows five hours of Idle Time. The next-largest Idle Time step is the “Interoffice Mail Form to Manager” step.

The vertical line at the left of the chart displays the amount of Idle Time. The cumulative frequency (up to 100 percent) is the vertical line at the right of the chart.

The Pareto Chart also displays a curve that identifies what portion of the total causes are attributed to each individual cause.

Important information to be aware of If you wish to change the color of the bars, the style of the background, or the placement of the legend on the chart, follow the procedures in Change the chart appearance.

Important information to be aware of To delete the chart, follow the procedure in Delete a chart.

Step 4: Using Pareto Information to Improve your Processes

Compare the relative contribution of each factor to the results you are observing in the model.

The chart illustrates that the greatest amount of idle time results from two causes:
1) staff must wait to receive the manager’s approval of their purchase requisitions, and
2) staff does not have an interoffice mail form to submit purchase information quickly to the manager. It is likely that if you can solve the problems in these two areas, you can resolve 55 percent of all the reasons for customer calls about slow service. Therefore, the Pareto chart has given you valuable information on how to focus your business resources.

2.5.4 – Pareto Chart: Basic Procedures

How To – Insert a Pareto chart

1. Click the File menu, and point to New.

2. In the Zoom box, click 100%.

3. On the Insert menu, click SPC Chart. The Chart wizard opens.

4. Click Next. A list of SPC charts displays. Pareto Chart is already highlighted.

5. Click Finish. A spreadsheet opens where you enter the data to be charted.

How To – Label columns

Use the chart you created in Insert a Pareto chart.

1. Notice the tabs in the lower left corner. The Spreadsheet tab lets you view and modify the spreadsheet data. The Chart tab lets you view and modify the chart.

2. Double-click the column heading Label. The Column Header Text dialog box opens.

3. Type a label for the first column (e.g. Process Step), and click OK.

4. If the column is not wide enough to display the entire heading, point to the line between the two column headings. A horizontal double-headed arrow appears. Horizontal double headed arrow

5. Drag the line to increase the width of the column until you can see the entire heading.

Label columns in spreadsheet

6. Type the label Idle Time (hours) for the other column.

How To – Format the chart

1. Click the Chart tab. The chart appears. No data is in the chart unless you are using the chart created in the previous section.

2. Click the right mouse button on the heading, Pareto Chart, and then click Format Title.

3. If needed, drag to highlight the text in the Text box, type Purchase Requisitions, and then click OK.

Important information to be aware of You can reposition the heading by left clicking on it and dragging it to the desired location on the chart.

4. Click the right mouse button on the y axis label, # of errors, and then click Format Title.

5. Drag to highlight the text in the Text box, type Idle Time (hours), and then click OK.

6. Click the right mouse button on the bottom line, the x axis, and then click Insert Titles.

7. Select Category (X) Axis, and then click OK.

8. Click the right mouse button on the x axis label, and then click Format Title.

9. Drag to highlight the text in the Text box, type Process Step, and then click OK.